Maintained by
S.T. Bates


The following requests for fungal specimens from Arizona have been made:

'Stalked Puffballs' in the genus Tulostoma needed

     Tulostoma is large and widespread genus of 'stalked puffballs'.  W.H. Long published treatments of the genus in the 1940's, which included several species from Arizona.  Jorge Wright's 1987 monograph of Tulostoma did much to clarify the taxonomy within the genus. 

     Currently, we have records for 30 Tulostoma species that occur in Arizona.  I am working on a treatment of AZ members of the genus and would like to have more Tulostoma specimens to assist me in this effort.  Who knows, we might contribute new records for the state or possibly encounter species that are new to science.  Any specimens that YOU could contribute would be greatly appreciated!


     Tulostoma fruiting bodies are terrestrial and often occur under Mesquite, Juniper, or Pinyon in aridland desertscrub or woodlands.  The images above represent species in the genus (the specimen on the left is ~ 4 cm tall), and all species in the group have a very similar appearance and are roughly the same size.  Please note, characters at the base of the stem (like the mycelial 'clump' pictured in the image on the left) are important, so it is best to dig the fruiting bodies out of the ground rather that just pulling them up.

Please contact Scott Bates (scott.thomas.bates@gmail.com) if you would like to help in this effort or if you have Tulostoma specimens to contribute now.  THANKS!

What is Endoptychum arizonicum?

     Dr. E. Vellinga's work sorting out Lepiotoid mushrooms and the family Agaricaceae has produced some very interesting results.  The association of several secotioid species (basically mushrooms that don't open the cap to expose their gills) with their mushroom relatives have now been suggested using molecular phylogenetic techniques. 

     For example, the genus Endoptychum is now known to be an assemblage of species that were not all closely related.  Endoptychum agaricoides was found to be more closely related to Chlorophyllum species (i.e., C. molybdites).  This interesting fungus now has a new name, Chlorophyllum agaricoides.  Likewise, Endoptychum depressum was found to be more closely related to mushrooms in the genus Agaricus and can now be called Agaricus inapertus

     One species in the genus Endoptychum is still a mystery, Endoptychum arizonicum!  The original specimen on which the species was based was collected in Tucson in 1900, and it was named Secotium arizonicum in 1902 by Shear & Griffiths (see the original description below).  In 1958, mycologists R. Singer and A.H. Smith transferred this species to the genus Endoptychum.



     This species is not well known and fresh specimens that could be used to extract DNA would make an excellent contribution to our understanding of the phylogeny of E. arizonicum.  In addition to the molecular data, specimens would contribute to descriptive work and expand our knowledge of the distribution of this species (if it is indeed a distinct species).  Endoptychum arizonicum mainly differs from C. agaricoides in that the former has larger spores (7.2-12.0 x 8.5-15 micrometers) than the later (5.5-6.8 x 6.6-8.0 micrometers).  The columella in C. agaricoides (upper right-hand of image below) is also more developed than in E. arizonicum, where it is shorter and often 'aborted'.



(image of Chlorophyllum agaricoides from Coker and Couch, 1928 - Plate 32)


     Additional images of Chlorophyllum agaricoides can be viewed here on the Spanish website Micologia.net:



Specimens of Endoptychum arizonicum or Chlorophyllum agaricoides that YOU could contribute would be greatly appreciated!  Please contact Scott Bates (scott.thomas.bates@gmail.com).  THANKS!

Send your specimens or images today!

Arizona Mycota Project
c/o S.T. Bates
CIRES Visiting Fellow
University of Colorado at Boulder
Rm. 318 - CIRES Bldg.
Boulder, CO 80309

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